You are here:     SephardicGen Home -> Websites by Country -> Morocco -> Fez and Haserfaty family

The Fez Community and the Hassarfaty Family
by Vidal Serfaty
Previously published in "Etsi" (Sephardi Genealogical and Historical Review)
June 2005, Vol. 8, No. 29

Background on the History of the Jews in Morocco and North Africa

Legends relate that Hebrews from the Twelve Tribes arrived in North Africa in the time of King Solomon in order to bring back metals, especially gold, for the construction of the Temple. Apparently, Hebrews came by the 10th century BCE with the Phoenicians and also when the city of Carthage was founded in 814 BCE. After the destruction of the first Temple in 586 BCE, Jews came to North Africa for the most part in the area that is now Libya. About 300 BCE, the successors of Alexander the Great brought Jewish soldiers to the area known as Cyrenaica, which is part of contemporary Libya. It is known that there was a Jewish presence here later during Punic Wars. At first, the Roman government appeared tolerant. Flavius Josephus relates that in the wake of the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE more Jews arrived and Titus settled several thousand in Carthage. In the years 87 and 115, resistance to the Romans broke out in Cyrenaica even before the Bar Kokhba Revolt in Eretz Israel. Beginning with the third century, Christianity spreads to North Africa. In 430, the Vandals, the Visigoths come to the area. In 535, the Byzantine Empire defeats the Vandals who were helped by the Jews. In 642, the Arabs attempt to rule over all of North Africa but they meet resistance from the Berbers. Their original name was Amazighen or Imazighen, which means "free people". The name Berber was given to them by the Romans. The name derives from the Latin word barbarus, meaning "stranger". The origin of this ancient people is unknown. They live in a wide stretch of territory from Egypt to the Sahara (1). Throughout all this time the Jews maintain good relations with the Berbers. A great deal has been written about Jewish influence on a portion of the Berber tribes and if some of them even were converted to Judaism. The legend of Queen Kahina (2) at the time of the Moslem conquest is an example. In spite of the fact that there are testimonies about the conversion, one must be careful concerning the number of converts as scientific evidence is lacking (3). The correct question should be what was the extent of Jewish influence on the Berbers and Berber influence on the Jews?

The use of family surnames came later in the Jewish world and often they had some connection to the environment. My Mother's maiden name, Amozig, apparently derives from a Berber source.

A Historical Sketch of Islam, Fez and its Jews

The infiltration of Islam in Morocco begins in 683 and it spreads in the 8th century. In 789 Idris I founded the city of Fez on the Fez river. Idris II developed it in 809. It is on a crossroads in an area rich with metals required for the growth of the city. In 817, Moslem families who had been expelled from Cordova, Spain and Egypt arrive in Fez. Apparently some Jewish families accompanied them. What may be called the first university in the world was established there in the 9th century, predating the Sorbonne in Paris and Oxford in England, - the "Elkarayouine" mosque-university (founded by families from Kairouan)

Fez is transformed into an important religious center especially for Islam. At the same time, it also becomes a Jewish religious center.

The Jews had a neighborhood called Foundouk el Yehudi and many important rabbis lived there. They included David ben Abraham Alfasi, Shlomo ben Ahouda and the most famous of them all, Rabbi Isaac Alfasi, the Rif. Dunash ibn Labrat and Judah Hayoudi wrote the first Hebrew grammar books in the 10th century. During the Idris and Almoravid dynasties, the conditions under which the Jews lived depended on the king. The Jews were expelled in 987 and in 1035 and 1125 six hundred Jews were murdered.

In 1125 the Berber Almohad tribe seized power. They were especially fanatical and sought to extend their rule over Libya and Spain. Jews as well as Christians were put to death.

In Spain, Rabbi Maimon and his son Rabbi Moses ben Maimon (Rambam-Maimonides) who was born on March 1138 flee from Cordova, which was under the rule of the Almohades and wander from city to city. When they remember that Fez is a Torah and spiritual center, they decide to come to Fez and hope for peace and quiet. The Rambam had already written on Aristoteles and on the Hebrew calendar. While he was in Fez, he improved his knowledge of medicine, philosophy and astronomy studying with the leading Moslem scholars. This was "The Golden Age" of Moslem culture. At the same time, a false Messiah named Moshe Der'i appears. The Almohads return to Fez and again, Jews are executed. Rabbi Maimon writes Iggeret Nehama (the Epistle of Consolation) in Arabic in which he wants to express encouragement and hope, and rules that conversion to Islam is not idolatry ("Avodah Zara") in contrast to Christianity, which is, and because of this one does not bring upon himself the death penalty. Later, the Rambam composes Iggeret Ha Shmad (Epistle on Apostacy) in which he opposes a fanatical rabbi and defends those who outwardly converted to Islam on the condition that they observe in secret as many mitzvoth as possible and return to Judaism as soon as they can. However, around 1165, the Almohades require all Jews to convert or to be put to death. Rabbi Yehuda Hakohen Ibn Soussan, the leader and rabbi of the community, refuses and is publicly executed in front of a large crowd on 8 April 1165. Rabbi Maimon and his family succeed in reaching the city Ceuta and sail for Eretz Yisrael on 18 April 1165 (4-5-6).

The Almohades are defeated in Spain and the Merinides come to power.
In 1269 Fez again serves as the capital city and Fez El Jedid (New Fez) is established. After the first expulsion from Spain in 1391, Jewish families arrive in Fez and join the community. The Fez Mellah, the Jewish quarter, is created in 1438. A number of explanations are given concerning the Mellah.

Why a neighborhood like this? Was it to protect the Jews or to punish them? Was to prevent them from entering a city holy to the Moslems, Fez Al Bali, the old city, where the graves of the founders of the city were located, and to safeguard its holiness? There are number of explanations as to the meaning of the word Mellah: was it previously an area where salt was found; or did the ruling powers force the Jews to salt (??? ) the heads of their defeated enemies (7) and put them on poles in order to strike greater fear in their enemies and perhaps they would loose the will to fight. (8-9-10)

Throughout all this period the Jews benefited from some respite, but not always. Pogroms were followed by large fines, hunger, disease, fires and all kinds of trouble. Walls with heavy gates that were locked at night surrounded the Mellah. It was located near the sultan's palace.

In the wake of the 1492 expulsion from Spain many families found their way to the Mellah. They were referred to as the "megurashim" the "expelled ones".The local people were referred to as the "toshavim"" residents". Over time there were many differences of opinion between the two groups concerning the interpretation of halakha Jewish law. The two groups did not speak the same language and their cultural levels were different. For dozens of years, the shehita, the slaughtering of kosher meat, of one group was not acceptable to the other. The "exiles" made their decisions independently – Takkanot (Decrees) of the Jewish Exiles from Castilia (Spain). (11)

At a later date, all the Jews of Morocco accepted the decrees of the exiles. The rabbis of Fez became the recognized religious authorities for all Morocco. Its court was known as the Supreme Court (Beith Din Hagadol).

Until recently, there was still a synagogue in Fez called "Slah dil Fassiim –Synagogue of Fez which still followed the original prayer ritual including the original prayer books of the Toshavim.

The following ruling dynasties were the Watasi and Sa'adi. Marrakech again became the capital city. In 1659 the Alaouites move to the city of Meknes and return to Fez in 1720. The 18th century saw famine and the deterioration of the economic situation in the city that caused many Jews to leave Fez.

Between 1790 and 1792 Moulay Yazid determined to destroy the Mellah and its synagogues and exile the residents. Some of the Jews converted to Islam and there are still Moslem families who bear the names Elkohen, Scali and others.

In 1834, the episode of Soulika the Righteous (Tzadeket) upsets the entire community. (See the story of Rabbi Raphael Hassarfati (1) (4-5-12).

The French Protectorate Decree is signed on 30 March 1912. The Tritle (pogrom) of the Fez Mellah occurs on 17 April 1912. (4-13).

Since the decline of Babylon Judaism, no community in the world has been like the community of Fez and its Rabbis a center of Torah study for more than thousand years.

An event that seems contradictory is that after thirteen centuries Jews are no longer classified as Dhimmis (the secondary status of "protected" non- Muslims) and are granted more freedom. (14)

In 1956, after Moroccan independence, it is likely that the collective memory forced Jews to leave and either move to Israel as the majority did or to France or Canada.

A Historical Sketch of the Hassarfati-Serfaty Family

The name, undoubtedly, derives from the Hebrew word for the area today known as France, Tsarfat. This means that the name was given to those who left France after the expulsion of Jews by Philip the Fair in 1306. A large portion of those expelled came to Spain where pushed by Spaniards (?), they adopted the name. It is clear that many who came from France were called Hassarfati or Serfaty. Sometimes, the Christians translated the name to Franco or Frances.

After the expulsion from Spain in 1492 the name is found throughout the Mediterranean Basin as well as in England and later in Holland.

The change in the name from Hassarfati to Serfaty in our family may result from the French colonialist spirit after 1912. The dropping of the "Ha" prefix seems to be because it sounded too aristocratic and the "y" replacing the "I" ending perhaps to sound similar to Corsican and Italian names.

The attached family tree goes back to about 1450. An old and rather interesting tradition that has been transmitted in writing from generation to generation for hundreds of years notes association with Rabeinu Tam, Rashi's grandson. The famous Rabbi the Hida, Rabbi Hayim Yosef Azulai who was born in Jerusalem and lived between 1724 and 1806 also mentioned it in his chart.

The problem is that there are seven missing generations. In spite of a great deal of research some of it carried out in Spain, it is not possible to fill in the gap, even though important rabbis of the same name have been identified, it is not possible to find a familial connection.

One of the Hassarfaty family, as far as we know, whose origin is in Fez was able to transmit this tradition.

From what region did this family come?

Tradition says that they came from Castile. A support for this is that there were rabbis in the family that recognized the authority of the Takkanot (Decrees) of the Jewish Exiles from Castilia (Spain). On the other hand, the first name Vidal, which frequently occurs in the family, was rather common in the areas of Aragon and Catalonia. The name appears to be a translation of the Hebrew Hayim. (15)

From the time of their arrival in Fez after the Expulsion from Spain, the Hassarfati family produced a number of prominent rabbis both for the exiled community and later for the entire community. Some of these noted rabbis will be listed in chronological order. (4-5-16-17)

1. Rabbi Vidal Hasarfati II, known also as "El Senor" or "Hakadmon" "the Elder" (1545-1619?), the son of Yitzhak and the grandson of Vidal I both of whom were prominent in their own right and served as judges in Fez. The Ha Hida wrote of him, "one of the geniuses of Occident". He amassed an astounding amount of knowledge, quoting Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, Seneca as well as Arab philosophers and, of course, Maimonides, Yehuda Halevi and many other rabbinic scholars. He frequently quotes from the books of the Kabalah and was also a physician. He had an important library and many of h is writings are still in manuscript form. He wrote an important work titled, A Commentary to Midrash Rabba (Perush Midrash Rabba) that was published in Warsaw in 1874. Another important work, published in Amsterdam in 1718 was Tsuf D'vash. This is a commentary on the Torah with additional commentaries on the Five Megillot. The book circulated throughout the Jewish world; it was written very concisely and was republished a number of times. Rabbi Vidal also had a reputation of being a miracle worker. (18-19)

In 1884 the court of the Sultan Moulay Hassan I decided to expand the court of his palace and ordered the removal of the Jewish cemetery. Only the grave of Rabbi Vidal was not moved and is located on a small hill, near the wall of the cemetery. On the other side was the Jewish bathhouse. The veterans of the Mellah relate that dirty water flowed to the grave of Rabbi Vidal defiling it. The rabbis requested that the bathhouse owner fix it or move the bathhouse. He refused. One day a young boy who was in the bathhouse saw the image of Rabbi Vidal. He then told his parents what he had seen and they did not pay it any attention. A few days later, the boy died. After a few days the owner of the bathhouse went bankrupt and became poor.

2. Rabbi Yitzhak II (1611-1660) the son of Rabbi Vidal, known as the Nagid. He ran his own Yeshiva and was elected the head of the community, which was an important position. Sometimes it was determined by the Moslem Sultan. From 1642 he filled two roles: judge and sheikh (Nagid in Hebrew). He was chosen both by the native and Spanish exile communities. His most difficult task was to meet the demands of the sultan for large sums of money. Moulay Mohamed Sherif, the founder of Alaouite dynasty attempted to bribe him in 1650. Rabbi Itzhak refused and all his property was confiscated. He attempted to flee, was caught and imprisoned. He was released only after a very large ransom was paid and returned to his position. He was well known because of his sermons and his commentaries. Like other rabbis, he attempted to explain that the custom of visiting the graves of the righteous was justified since "the righteous person is the basis of the universe." The famous Rabbi Yavetz (Rabbi Ya'akov Even Tzur) mentions him (cf. Malkhei D'rabanan (5) ). His son, Vidal III succeeded him as judge. (20)

3. Rabbi Shmuel (I) (1660-1713), the grandson of Rabbi Vidal III. He wrote his book Divrei Shmuel at the age of thirty-nine. At that time it was uncommon for someone to have a book published in his lifetime. He wrote other works. He was a teacher and friend of R' Yavetz. (20) His nephew, Shmuel (II), the son of Aaron moved to Amsterdam and published the books of his uncle and great-grandfather, Vidal II. (18) It is most likely that Samuel Sarphati (1813-1866) a famous Amsterdam physician and economist was his descendant. (22) A street in that city bears his name.

4. Rabbi Eliahu (11715-1803) (23) the son of Rabbi Yosef (1642-1718) and grandson of Rabbi Yitzhak II. Explains the laws of Kashrut according to the customs of Fez. He is considered one of the most important rabbis of the Jewish world. He was known as "Rabeinu". Recently, researchers have discovered correspondence between rabbis who were unable to solve problems arising in Jewish law who were advised to consult with "Hamelekh", "the King". From this we see the high esteem in which Rabbi Eliahu was held. He was an immensely cultured and knowledgeable person. He studied with the most prominent rabbis of the period Rabbi Yehudah ben Atar and Rabbi Shmuel Elbaz. He was a friend of Yavetz (Rabbi Yaakov Aben Tzur) in spite of their difference in age. In the city of Tetuan around 1740, he studied with Rabbi Menahem Attia, known as the "Prince of the Zohar". In his youth he intended to settle in Eretz Israel with his friend Rabbi Haim ben Atar who founded the famous Yeshiva Kneset Yisrael in Jerusalem. At the same time, the Baal Shem Tov (1700-1760) founder of- in-law to learn the Torah of Rabbi Hayim ben Atar (Or Hahayim). (!&) It is interesting to see how the Judaism of Fez, Morocco, influenced the development of Hasidism.
Rabbi Eliahu never succeeded in settling in Eretz Yisrael. When he returned from Tetuan to Fez he again met with Rabbi Yavetz who was the head of the famous Rabbinical Court of Five which included Rabbi Eliahu, the son of R' Yavetz and Rabbi Raphael Oved Even Tzur. The rulings of this court are still studied today. In spite of many tragedies Rabbi Eliahu continued in his position. Rabbi Yavetz also experienced disasters when sixteen of his seventeen children died. Rabbi Eliahu was a noted speaker and left behind hundreds of manuscripts that only in the past few years have begun to be published. His famous works are: Kol Eliahu, Aderet Eliahu (commentary on the Torah) and Na'ar Bokheh (eulogies that he prepared). He died at the age of ninety. When the synagogue of the family was established it was called Slah D'Eliahu or Slah D'Ihaham. After Jews left the Mellah, the synagogue fell into disrepair and recently it was sold and has become a …billiard parlor.
The elders of the Mellah relate that one day while he was studying, the maid brought him a glass of tea. When she came to the door, she heard two men engaged in conversation and she went to bring an additional glass of tea. Upon her return she only saw Rabbi Eliahu. She asked him with whom was he speaking and Rabbi Eliahu responded that he was talking to the Prophet Eliahu. The Moslem who now lives in his house repeats this story and adds that in the room where he studied there was a hook in the ceiling to which the rabbi would attach his hair. This way if he were to begin to doze off and his head would fall, the pulling of the rope would wake him up. He had three sons, and their sons, Rabbi Yisrael Ya'akov and Rabbi Raphael Menahem were rabbis in the city on close terms with the Moslem government.

5. Rabbi Raphael Menahem (died in 1843). One day an envoy from Spain came to visit the sultan. Since the sultan could not invite a Christian to his house, he requested the Nagid Rabbi Raphael Menahem to receive him and they then became friends. After some time, it appears that one of his sons went to Spain. When he did not return, the concerned rabbi went to find him. At that time it was still forbidden for Jews to enter Spain because of the laws of the Expulsion Edict. (It was only in 1992 during the commemoration of the 500th anniversary of the Edict that the Spanish parliament annulled the law). Rabbi Raphael Menahem smuggled himself in and went to his friend who requested him to accompany him to the church in observance of a particular holiday. Since it was crowded and to prevent them from becoming separated, his friend attached a chain to both of their belts. During the service, the priest preached an abusive sermon against the Jews and he declared that whoever killed a Jew would enter heaven. The rabbi felt that his friend was influenced by these words and slowly he loosened the chain and fled. Without noticing that he had disconnected the chain, his friend shouted that there was a Jew next to him. The crowd grabbed the Christian standing next to him and killed him thinking that he was the rabbi. Meanwhile, the rabbi managed to get to his friend's house and told his friend's mother what had happened. When her son returned, she spit in his face and demanded that he accompany the rabbi until he could return to his home

6. Rabbi Raphael (I), the son of Rabbi Yisrael-Ya'akov. He was on good terms with the monarchy. He used all his powers to save the life of the righteous Soulika (Hatsadeket). When in spite of this she was beheaded, he sought to bury her bribing soldiers and officers and tossing silver coins among the Moslem crowd. The story of Soulika, or at least one of the versions, follows. Soulika was fourteen years old and astoundingly beautiful. One day after arguing with her mother, she ran to a Moslem neighbor in Tangier whom she had befriended. Out of jealousy, she tried to convert her to Islam. When Soulika refused, the family spread the word that she had converted even though it was not true. In light of this, if Soulika would return to Judaism she automatically would be sentenced to death. She still refused to accept the lie and she announced that her only God was the God of Israel and that she never accepted the Islamic faith. Since the testimony of a Jew was worthless against the testimony of a Moslem, she was sentenced to death. She was brought before the sultan in Fez and in spite of magnificent gifts, speeches and attempts by women who had become Moslems to convince her, she continued to refuse. She was beheaded in front of a large crowd of Moslems. When her body was transferred to the new cemetery, she was buried next to Rabbi Eliahu Hassarfati. Some years later, Rabbi Avner Yisrael Hassarfati requested to be buried next to her. The mausoleum that was constructed dominates the area and is a place of pilgrimage to this very day. (4-5-12)

7. Rabbi Avner Israel (I) (1827-1884). The second cousin of Rabbi Raphael and the son of Rabbi Vidal IV (1797-1856), head of the rabbinical court and noted for his decisions in Jewish law. He was not only a prominent rabbi but also a noted Cabalist, historian and expert in philosophy. His handwriting was very artistic. The Moslem scientists enjoyed conversing and studying with him. He had a very rich library, received newspapers on a regular basis and books from all over the Jewish world, from Germany and in Yiddish. (24) In 1879, as a result of a request from the Alliance Israelite de Paris and the Anglo-Jewish Association in London, he wrote Yahas Fez, which apparently was the first extensive history account written by the Jews of Morocco. He describes the life, culture, customs and economic conditions. (9) He expended great efforts to establish the Alliance school, which opened on March 2 1884. He was noted for his modesty, only ate meat on Shabbat and always invited the poor to dine with him. Charles de Foucault, who was a French officer and spy wrote of him: "Even in Moslem eyes he was the righteous man of his generation. Jews and Moslems sought his advice at every opportunity and for every reason." After the death of his father, his mother decided to move to Eretz Yisrael. His daughter, Simcha, from his first marriage decided to settle in Jerusalem and her half-brother from the second marriage accompanied her. In Jerusalem, Simcha's daughter married Rabbi Ya'akov Moshe Toledano who was the Minister of Religious Affairs in Israel and the author of the book Ner Hama'arav. (16) Rabbi Avner Israel had four daughters and one son, Rabbi Vidal V.

8. Rabbi Vidal (V) (1862-1921). He was appointed a judge in 1892 and the head of the rabbinical court in 1912 by both the Moslem and French governments. He was apparently the first one to hold the title "Chief Rabbi of Fez" in accordance with French system. He had a good relationship with both the Moslem and French rulers. He received the status of protégé francais- French protection. His activity at the time of the Tritl (Pogrom in the Fez Mellah in 1912) with the help of the Alliance Israelite de Paris (13-25) was essential. Afterwards, he requested that the Alliance teach English in its school. The elders of the community relate that it was his practice on the eve of the Sabbath to ride through the streets of the Mellah on a white horse extending greetings for a Shabbat Shalom to his fellow Jews. He probably began this practice after receiving French protection since during the time of Moslem rule it was forbidden for Jews to ride on a horse.

9. Rabbi Avner Israel (II) (1885-1933). Son of Rabbi Vidal (V) was the secretary of the first Zionist organization in Fez, Hibat Zion in 1909. He was later appointed the rabbi of Safi and he wrote a dedication for the book Malkhei D'rabbanan (5). He was the last rabbi in this family line.

In the second branch, those descended from Rabbi Raphael Menahem, we note Rabbi Raphael II (1871-1956) who served as the rabbi of Mazagan and Oujda and wrote a book of commentaries on the Torah.

There was another branch of the family in Tetuan descended from Rabbi Ya'akov the son of rabbi Yitzhak II. Yitzhak bar Vidal Hasarfaty was the mohel in this city from 1880 until 1940. (26)

The Family Library

The family's library was considered the most important Jewish library in all of North Africa and one of the most important in the Jewish world. It contained thousands of manuscripts, ancient and rare books and special editions, journals and newspapers from Europe and Eretz Yisrael. The library was neglected for many years. When Vidal (died in Israel in 1976), a teacher in Fez and the son of Eliahu, who for many years maintained the synagogue and Rahamim Serfaty, the son of Rabbi Vidal V and the father of the author of this article, arrived to Fez, they were astonished to find that a portion of the library "had been taken", part of it crumbled and was consumed by vermin. They divided what remained among the family. Rahamim brought to Israel what he was able to recover and transferred most of it to Bar Ilan University. Some documents or manuscripts remained among three heirs.

A Strange Short Story

Even the best of families can have a 'black sheep' in them. In Rome there was someone named Yosef Hassarfati who was born in Fez, became a Christian in 1552 and went by the name Andrea Filipo di Monti and also known as "Joseph Moro". He tried to evangelize among Jews. The Pope issued a ruling in 1584 where he required groups of Jews of at least one hundred men and fifty women to listen to Andrea Filipo di Monti's sermons. In the same year, he wrote books in Hebrew against Judaism. He served as the censor of all publications in Hebrew causing many problems for the Jews.

Haserfaty Family tree
Click here to see the family tree

[1] Yahou, Rachid : « Les proto-berbères d’Afrique : géographie ».
[2] Behagle, Michel : « La reine Dihya » (dite Kahina). .
[3] Schroeter, Daniel J. : « La découverte des juifs berbères ». .
[4] Obadia, David : « Fas veh’ah’ameah. Morocco ». [Fès et ses Sages]. Vol 1. Jérusalem, 1979. (in hébrew).
[5] Ben Naïm, Yossef : « Malkhei Rabanan » [Nos Rabbins les plus célèbres]. Jérusalem, 1931. (réédition : Ashdod, 1998). (in hébrew).
[6] Hayoun, Maurice-Ruben : « Maïmonide ou l’autre Moïse ». J.-C. Lattes, 1994.
[7] Lettre en anglais adressée au Foreign Office le 10 avril 1873 par les consuls de France et de Grande-Bretagne. FO 99/154. Recueil Pr E. Bashan, Université Bar Ilan.
[8] Bouhsira, Abraham : « La communauté juive de Fès ». Thèse de doctorat de sociologie. Université de Strasbourg, 1997.
[9] Hassarfati, Avner Israël : « Yahas Ir Fas » (Propos sur la ville de Fès). Dans « Fas veh’ah’ameah » [4].
[10] Zafrani, Haïm : « Mille ans de vie juive au Maroc ». Paris, Maisonneuve et Larose, 1983
[11] Laredo, Abraham I. : « Les Taqqanot des juifs expulsés d’Espagne. Régime matrimonial et successoral ». Traduit de l’espagnol par Elie Malka et David Amsellem. Imprimerie Fontana, Casablanca, 1953, Casablanca, 1953.
[12] Abensur, Philip : « Sol Hachuel (1820-1834) : histoire et généalogie ». Etsi, vol. 3, n°11, décembre 2000.
[13] Serfaty, Vidal : « Le "Tritl" (saccage) de Fès en 1912 ». Etsi, vol. 8, n°28, mars 2004.
[14] Chouraqui, André : « La condition de l’Israélite marocain ». Paris, Presses du livre français, 1950. Note : Le statut des dhimmis, institué par le décret d’Omar au 8ème siècle, impose aux non-musulmans des contraintes difficiles.
[15] Ces précisions nous ont été transmises par le Professeur Elisheva Albert (Université Bar Ilan), spécialiste de l’histoire du judaïsme médiéval.
[16] Toledano, Yaacov Moshé : « Ner Hamaarav » (Lumière de l’Occident). Jérusalem, 1911. (2ème édition : Jérusalem, 1973). (in hébrew).
[17] Bashan, Eliezer : « Yaadouth Marocco. Avarah ve tarboutah ». (Le judaïsme du Maroc. Son passé et sa culture). Tel-Aviv, Hakibbutz Hameuchad, 2000. (in hébrew).
[18] Ben Tov, Haïm : « Rabbi Vidal Hassarfati Hasheni » (le second). Périodique, vol. 3. Université Bar-Ilan, 1981 (in hébrew).
[19] Ben Abbou, David : « Tsouf Dvash » (Nectar du miel) de Rabbi Vidal Hassarfati. Préface. Mossad Beith Yossef, Bné Brak, 1998 (in hébrew).
[20] Ben Tov, Haïm : « Toledot Itshak ». Préface. Jérusalem, 1995 (in hébrew). (Traduction en français de la préface par Anne-Marie Serfaty-Charon).
[21] Amar, Moshé : « Divre Shmuel » (Paroles de Shmuel) de Rabbi Shmuel Hassarfati. Préface. Orot Yahadouth Hamagreb, Lod, 1997. (in hébrew). (Traduction en français de la préface par Anne-Marie Serfaty-Sharon).
[22] Laredo, Abraham I. : « Les noms des juifs du Maroc ». Madrid, Institut Arias Montano, 1978, pp. 523-527.
[23] Hassarfati, Eliahou : « Kol Eliahou » (La Voix de Eliahou) de Rabbi Eliahou Hassarfati. Édition Ahavat Chalom, Jérusalem 1995. (in hébrew). (Préface traduite en français par le Rav Avner Israël Chokron).
[24] Documents personnels.
[25] Alliance Israélite Universelle. Paris, Archives Maroc, Liasse I B 5.81.
[26] López Álvarez, Ana María : « La comunidad judía de Tetuán 1881-1940, Onomástica y sociología en el libro de registro de circuncisiones del Rabino Yishaq bar Vidal Haserfaty ». Tolède, Museo Sefardí, 2003.

Other World Regions
General Sephardic | Asia and the Orient | Caribbean | Egypt | France | Greece | Netherlands | Iraq & Syria | Iran | Israel | Italy | Mexico | Morocco | North Africa | South America | Spain | Portugal | Turkey & Greece | United States | Anusim & Crypto Jews | Family pages | Books and Bibliography
Archives and Genealogy Topics
How to Start | Sephardic Surnames | Sephardic Genealogy Topics | Sephardic History | Archival Resources | Sephardic Newslists | Genealogy Forms | Search | Site-Map |

Xcomments to
XSephardic Genealogy HOME page.
Created by Jeff Malka
All rights reserved.